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全球气候会议简史

时间:2022-08-01 04:01 来源:网络整理 转载:耆门芳华网
1994年,《联合国气候变化框架公约》生效,目前共有195个缔约方。

The international political response to climate change began with the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, which sets out a framework for action aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The Convention, which entered into force on 21 March 1994, now has 195 parties.
1992年,国际社会首次对气候变化做出政治回应,通过了《联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC)。这份公约提出了一套旨在维持大气中温室气体浓度稳定的行动框架,以避免“人类对气候造成危险的破坏”。1994年3月21日,《联合国气候变化框架公约》正式生效,目前共有195个缔约方。

In December 1997, delegates to the third Conference of the Parties (COP) in Kyoto, Japan, agreed to a protocol to the UNFCCC that committed industrialized countries and countries in transition to a market economy to achieve emission reduction targets. These countries, known as Annex I parties under the UNFCCC, agreed to reduce their overall emissions of six GHGs by an average of 5% below 1990 levels in 2008-2012 (first commitment period), with specific targets varying from country to country. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005, and now has 192 parties.
1997年12月在****京都,参加第3次缔约方会议(COP)的代表们达成了UNFCCC的补充协议,承诺工业化国家与向市场经济过渡的国家联手,实现温室气体减排目标。与会国家——即UNFCCC“附件一缔约方”——同意,2008至2012年(第1承诺期),实现6种温室气体的排放量比1990年平均减少5%。《京都议定书》于2005年2月16日正式生效,目前共有192个缔约方。

LONG-TERM NEGOTIATIONS IN 2005-2009
2005年-2009年间的漫长谈判

Convening in Montreal, Canada, in 2005, the first Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 1) decided to establish the Ad Hoc Working Group on Annex I Parties’ Further Commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) in accordance with Protocol Article 3.9, which mandated consideration of Annex I parties’ further commitments at least seven years before the end of the first commitment period.
2005年,《京都议定书》缔约方第一次会议(CMP1)在加拿大蒙特利尔召开。会议根据《京都议定书》第3.9项条款——至少在第1个承诺期结束之前七年开始审议缔约方后续承诺,决定成立《京都议定书》特设工作组(AWG-KP)。

COP 11 created a process to consider long-term cooperation under the Convention through a series of four workshops known as “the Convention Dialogue.”
第11次缔约方会议(COP)还创立新流程,通过4个统称为“会议对话”的研讨会,考虑缔约方之间的长期合作。

In December 2007, COP 13 and CMP3 inBali, Indonesia, resulted in agreement on the Bali Roadmap on long-term issues. COP 13 adopted the Bali Action Plan (BAP) and established the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) with a mandate to focus on mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology and a shared vision for long-term cooperative action. Negotiations on Annex I parties’ further commitments continued under the AWG-KP. The deadline for concluding the two-track negotiations was Copenhagen in 2009.
2007年12月,在印度尼西亚巴厘岛举行的第13次COP会议及第3次CMP会议,最终达成关于长期问题的巴厘路线图协议。第13次COP会议通过了巴厘岛行动计划(BAP),并建立长期合作特设工作组(AWG-LCA),授权关注缓解、适应、资金、技术以及长期合作行动的共同愿景。而在AWG-KP框架下,“附件一缔约方”后续承诺问题继续协商进行。这份双轨谈判的最后达成期限是在2009年的哥本哈根。

COPENHAGEN:
哥本哈根:

The UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, took place in December 2009. During the high-level segment, informal negotiations took place in a group con***ting of major economies and representatives of regional and other negotiating groups. Late in the evening of 18 December, these talks resulted in a political agreement, the “Copenhagen Accord,” which was then presented to the COP plenary for adoption. After 13 hours of debate, delegates ultimately agreed to “take note” of the Copenhagen Accord. In 2010, over 140 countries indicated support for the Accord. More than 80 countries also provided information on their national mitigation targets or actions. Parties also extended the mandates of the AWG-LCA and AWG-KP until COP 16 and CMP6 in2010.
2009年12月,联合国气候变化会议在丹麦哥本哈根举行。在高级别会议阶段,世界主要经济体、区域性与其他谈判小组的代表们进行了非正式谈判。12月18日深夜,会谈达成一项政治协议,即《哥本哈根协定》,并随即递交COP全体会议等待通过。经过13个小时的讨论,代表们最终同意“关注”该协议。2010年,超过140个国家表示支持《哥本哈根协议》。80多个国家还****了关于本国缓解目标或采取行动的信息。会议各国还分别将AWG-LCA与AWG-KP的期限延长到2010年的第16次COP和第6次CMP。

CANCUN:
坎昆:

The UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun, Mexico, took place in December 2010, when parties finalized the Cancun Agreements. Under the Convention track, Decision 1/CP.16, inter alia, recognized the need for deep cuts in global emissions in order to limit the global average temperature rise to2°Cabove pre-industrial levels. Parties agreed to consider strengthening the global long-term goal during a Review by 2015, including in relation to a proposed1.5°C target.
2010年12月,联合国气候变化会议在墨西哥坎昆召开。会议最终达成《坎昆协议》。在会议中,第16次COP会议第1决议尤其认识到,有必要深入削减全球温室气体的排放,以便将全球平均温度限定在比工业化前升高2°C以内。各方同意到2015年回顾时,考虑加强全球长期目标,包括被提议的1.5°C目标。

The Cancun Agreements also established several new institutions and processes, such as the GCF, which was created and designated as an operating entity of the Convention’s financial mechanism.
《坎昆协议》还创建了多个新机构与流程,例如全球气候大会金融机制的指定经营实体——绿色气候****会(GCF)。

Under the Protocol track, the CMP urged Annex I parties to raise the level of ambition towards achieving aggregate emission reductions, and adopted Decision 2/CMP.6 on land use, land-use change and forestry. The mandates of the two AWGs were extended for another year.
按照协议规定,CMP敦促附件一缔约方提高总体减排的目标,并采用第6次CMP中关于土地使用、土地使用变化与森林学的第2次决议。同时,两个AWG的期限均再次延长1年。

DURBAN:
德班:

The UN Climate Change Conference in Durban, South Africa, took place from 28 November to 11 December 2011. The Durban outcomes covered a wide range of topics, notably the establishment of a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, a decision on long-term cooperative action under the Convention and agreement on operationalization of the GCF.
2011年,联合国气候变化会议11月28日至12月11日在南非德班举行。德班会议的成果涵盖了范围广泛的议题。这其中尤其显著的是——确立《京都议定书》第2承诺期;决定大会缔约国采取长期合作行动;以及对GCF的运营达成一致意见。

Parties also agreed to launch the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) with a mandate “to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties.” The ADP is scheduled to complete these negotiations by 2015, with the new instrument entering into effect in 2020. In addition, the ADP was mandated to explore actions to close the pre-2020 ambition gap in relation to the2°C target.
各方还同意建立德班增****动平台特设工作组(ADP),授权“提出一项新协议,即一份适用于会议各方的法律文书,或取得具有法律效力的成果。”ADP预计到2015年完成磋商,2020年新协议正式生效。此外,ADP还受命研究采取适当行动,以填补在2020年前达到2°C目标的差距。

DOHA:
多哈:

The UN Climate Change Conference in Doha, Qatar, took place in November and December 2012. The conference resulted in a package of decisions, referred to as the “Doha Climate Gateway.” These include amendments to the Kyoto Protocol to establish its second commitment period and agreement to terminate the AWG-KP’s work in Doha. The parties also agreed to terminate the AWG-LCA and negotiations under the BAP.
2012年11月和12月,联合国气候变化会议在卡塔尔的多哈举行。会议达成了统称为“多哈气候通关”的一揽子决议,其中包括修订《京都议定书》,创建第2承诺期,并同意终止AWG-KP在多哈的工作。各方还一致通过结束AWG-LCA与BAP的谈判。

WARSAW:
华沙:

The Warsaw Climate Change Conference took place from 11-23 November 2013, in Warsaw, Poland. Negotiations focused on the implementation of agreements reached at previous meetings, including pursuing the work of the ADP. The meeting, among other things, adopted an ADP decision that invites parties to initiate or intensify domestic preparations for their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), and resolves to accelerate the full implementation of the BAP and pre-2020 ambition.
2013年11月11日-23日,各方在波兰华沙举行了华沙气候变化会议。会议谈判的重点是此前各次会议达成协议的实施,包括加快ADP的工作。本次会议还通过了ADP决议,请求各国提出或加强国家自主贡献方案(INDCs)的准备工作,决心推进BAP与2020年前目标的全力实施,等等。

PREPARATIONS FOR CLIMATE SUMMIT 2014:
2014年气候峰会准备工作:

On 24 September 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon invited global leaders and participants from business, finance, civil society and local communities to convene in September 2014 for the UN Climate Summit. The Summit, while not part of the official negotiating process under the UNFCCC, aims to mobilize political will to reach a global climate agreement at the Paris Climate Change Conference in December 2015 and galvanize action on the ground across all sectors.
2013年9月24日,联合国****长潘基文邀请全球领导人以及来自商业、金融、民间组织和当地社区的参与者于2014年9月召开会议,为联合国气候峰会做准备。这次峰会不属于UNFCCC下的正式谈判流程,旨在动员各方的政治决心,以期在2015年12月的巴黎气候变化大会上达成全球气候协议,并敦促与会各界采取行动。

Abu Dhabi Ascent:
阿布扎比登峰会:

Held from 4-5 May2014 inAbu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE), the Ascent was hosted by Secretary-General Ban and the Minister of State and Special Envoy for Energy and Climate Change, Sultan Al Jaber, UAE. The Ascent brought together 1,000 government ministers, and business, finance and civil society members to discuss new initiatives and partnerships to address climate change that would be further developed in the lead-up to the UN Climate Summit.
此次登峰会于2014年5月4日-5日在阿拉伯联合酋长国阿布扎比举行。会议由联合国****长潘基文和阿联酋国务部长、能源和气候变化特使苏丹·贾比尔(Sultan Al Jaber)共同主持。与会的1000位****部长与商业、金融、民间组织成员们,讨论了应对气候变化的新方案与伙伴关系。联合国气候峰会的准备阶段将进一步研究这些问题。

The Abu Dhabi Ascent identified action areas around which elements of the Climate Summit have been organized, including: short-lived climate pollutants; forests; agriculture; cities; transportation; resilience, adaptation and disaster risk reduction; climate finance; and economic drivers.
阿布扎比登峰会确定了气候峰会的几个行动领域,包括短期气候污染物、森林、农业、城市、交通、恢复力、适应力和疾病风险的降低、气候资金问题以及经济驱动力。

New York:
纽约:

Climate Summit 2014 convened at UN Headquarters in New York, US, on 23 September 2014. The Summit brought together 100 Heads of State, together with government ministers and leaders from international organizations, business, finance, civil society and local communities, to mobilize the political support and momentum necessary to reach a global agreement on climate change in 2015 and galvanize action on the ground across all sectors.
2014年9月23日,2014年全球气候峰会在****纽约的联合国总部召开。此次峰会聚集了100个国家的元首,以及各国部长、国际组织、商业、金融、民间组织和当地社区的领导人。会议凝聚了2015年达成全球气候变化协议所必需的政治支持与动力,敦促各界采取行动。

A number of major initiatives, coalitions and commitments were announced or launched during the Summit, such as: the adoption of a New York Declaration on Forests, which contains commitments to halve the loss of natural forests by 2020 and strive to end it by 2030; a total pledge of US$2.3 billion made to the Green Climate Fund (GCF); the launch of the Global Alliance of Climate-Smart Agriculture; the announcement by the insurance industry of intention to create a climate risk investment framework by2015 inParis; and the launch of a new Compact of Mayors.
峰会期间提出了许多提案,达成了众多****,提出了很多承诺。例如,会议上通过的《纽约森林宣言》承诺,到2020年实现天然林损失减半,并争取到2030年终结天然林损失;承诺向绿色气候****注入23亿美元资金;建立全球气候智能农业****;保险业宣布,希望2015年在巴黎提出气候风险****框架;以及创立新的“全球市长****”。

Vocabulary
mandate:授权;托管
Ad Hoc:特别的;临时;专设
inter alia:尤其
terminate:终止

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